Mining is one of the principal source of Goa's industrial and trade development and offers considerable scope for employment. Mineral resources are an asset of Goa and iron ore is a leading commodity. Other minerals include manganese ore and ferro-manganese ore which are produced and exported, but iron ore occupies the pride of place in Goa's economy. Some of the most productive and important mines are located in the northern and eastern parts of Goa.
There are units manufacturing a variety of items like pesticides, fertilizers, tyres and tubes, iron ore pellets, foot wear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, sugar, wheat products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts, textiles, brewery products etc. There are handicrafts units mainly engaged in the manufacture of wood, crafts, brass, pottery, handloom, leather and bamboo crafts etc.
Agriculture is one of the important economic activities in Goa. Goa has done much to improve and develop its agriculture so that it becomes more productive and the farmers who work on the field get a better return for their labour. Rice along with fish is the staple diet of the people and it is also a principal agricultural crop. The important crops grown are paddy, ragi, maize, jowar, bajra and pulses. Cash crops like coconut, cashew-nut, arecanut, mango, jackfruit, banana, pineapple etc. are also grown in abundance. Sugarcane cultivation has been taken up only recently and a sugar factory has also been set up in Goa.
Paddy is the principal crop of Goa. There are two paddy seasons, namely Kharif or sorod and the rabi or vaingan. The monsoon crops are called the kharif or sorod crops and the winter crops are called rabi or vaingan crops. The main sources of irrigation for winter crops are the nallahs, rivers and streams, tanks, wells, canal etc. Crops grown in the Kharif season consist of paddy, ragi (locally called nachani) and some pulses. Crops grown in the rabi season are comprised of paddy, pulses like horse-gram (kulith), black gram (udid), a variety of beans and some vegetables.
Cashew is an important crop in Goa. An exhilarating drink called Feni is produced from cashew. It is a kind of gin or vodka.
A variety of mangoes are grown in Goa. Some of the famous Mango varieties are mancurade, mussarade, fernandine, xavier, alfonsa, colaco etc. There are two varieties of jackfruit grown here namely kapo (hard) and rasal (soft).
The kind of vegetables grown in the Goa are brinjal, lady's fingers, radish, cucumber, pumpkins, drumsticks, breadfruit and different varieties of gourds. Sweet potatoes, chillies, onions are also available.
The animal husbandry and the veterinary services form an important sector of rural economy. Cattle feed, milk products, meat etc were imported on a large scale. There was one cattle farm at Dhat in Goa district having an important herd of Sindhi cows and a small poultry farm at Tonca, Panaji.
A Piggery farmwas also functioning at Curti in Ponda latuka to produce qualitative pigs for their distribution to farmers for breeding. Large white-York-shire and other improved breeds of pigs were maintained at this farm.
Fishing formed an important economic activity of the Goa. The Goa is abounded in rich marine and inland fisheries potential which consisted mainly of prawns, one of the most important foreign exchange earning commodity and commercially important shoaling fish like mackerels and sardines.